Currently, most diseases are treated with advanced molecular biology strategies and drugs. Due to their susceptibility to degradation and deactivation, it is recommended that the drugs are loaded in a matrix until the moment of release. Drug delivery systems control the drug release rate and release location in the body. These systems will have the ability to treat diseases locally and more effectively, preventing non-specific and harmful interaction with healthy tissues and decreasing the amount of drug dose required.
To allow a localized and improved control on drug release, newer drug delivery systems focus on implantable nanoscaled delivery devices. Drug delivery systems having this length scale allow for a relative high drug load while at same time possess a large surface area to weight ratio. The versatility of electrospinning allows the creation of porous fibrous nano- to micron sized structures in a very controlled and reproducible way. Moreover, a biodegradable electrospun membrane could be implanted close to a diseased organ for localized and sustained drug delivery/release. Several techniques can be used to incorporate drugs or biomolecules in electrospun nanofibers. Following techniques and statement are also transferable to electrospraying of particles:
Recent studies have shown that electrospun fibers with inherently high surface area to volume ratio and high interconnectivity have a number of benefits, including: high drug loading efficiency; the ability to overcome mass transfer limitations associated with most polymeric delivery systems; the facilitation of drug diffusion; and improvement of solubility of various bioactive molecules. Encapsulation of these bioactive molecules into electrospun fibers allows for localized delivery of antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, antiscarring agents, antineoplastic agents, immunosuppressives, growth factors, cytokines, genes (DNA and RNA), enzymes, and a number of other important bioactive ingredients to target sites.